Teeth grinding, also known as bruxism, is a common dental condition that most individuals in the world are likely to experience at some point in their lives. Occasional grinding may not cause much harm, but chronic, prolonged and untreated bruxism can lead to permanent damage to the teeth and overall oral health.
We’ll seek to help you understand the long-term effects of teeth grinding, which is crucial in promoting preventive measures and seeking appropriate treatment early and effectively to maintain optimal dental health.
Defining Teeth Grinding or Bruxism
Bruxism is a condition characterized by the habit of grinding, clenching, or gnashing the teeth, usually occurring unconsciously during sleep but can also occur while awake. As we mentioned, while occasional teeth grinding may not cause serious harm, persistent and untreated sleep bruxism can lead to permanent dental damage.
This condition can result in various symptoms, such as jaw pain, headache, tooth sensitivity or damage, and disrupted sleep, which then have secondary consequences on overall health.
A majority of the people with chronic bruxism are children. In fact, it can affect anywhere from 15% to 30% of children and only up to 10% of adults.
Bruxism is typically associated with stress, anxiety, or misaligned teeth and can be treated through various methods such as mouthguards (protective), stress management techniques (preventive), and dental interventions (functional).
Most cases of bruxism are of the awake type, which means teeth grinding and clenching during the day, even if it’s unconscious and out of habit. Nonetheless, its nighttime variety, sleep bruxism, is the most underreported form, in most cases.
Characterized by the constant clenching and grinding of the teeth while awake, awake bruxism poses a significant risk of permanent dental damage if left untreated. It can lead to a range of oral health problems, including worn-down or loose teeth, tooth sensitivity, and jaw pain.
Sleep bruxism occurs when individuals unconsciously clench or grind their teeth at night during their sleep. This condition is quite common, affecting both children and adults. Like with its awake version, it was more common in children than adults, with only about 13% of adults being consistently found to have bruxism in several studies.
Risk Factors and Causes
One of the key factors contributing to the development of teeth grinding or bruxism is the presence of certain risk factors. These risk factors can increase the likelihood of experiencing teeth grinding and can lead to permanent dental damage if left untreated.
Some common and well-known risk factors include high levels of stress and anxiety. During the global COVID pandemic, for example, dentists noticed an uptick in bruxism cases, due in large part to untreated stress related clenching and grinding.
Certain lifestyle habits, such as smoking, drug use, and excessive alcohol consumption, have also been shown to increase the risk of bruxism or, at the very least, worsen it.
Other factors are certain medical conditions like sleep apnea, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJ).
Some neurological disorders and movement disorders like Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD,) Parkinson’s, and cerebral palsy are also known to contribute to bruxism.
It’s important to note that the exact causes of bruxism are not fully understood, but it is believed to be a combination of physical, psychological, and even genetic factors. It is crucial to address the underlying causes and risk factors to prevent permanent dental damage.
Signs and Symptoms of Teeth Grinding
Teeth grinding, also known as bruxism, can exhibit various signs and symptoms that indicate its presence.
The most common symptoms and signs of teeth grinding are:
The occurrence of jaw pain is commonly associated with teeth grinding and bruxism.
The temporomandibular joint (TMJ), which connects the jawbone to the skull, can become strained and inflamed due to the excessive pressure exerted during teeth grinding. This can cause discomfort and pain in the jaw area.
If left untreated, teeth grinding can result in permanent dental damage to the jaw joint.
Facial pain is a common symptom of teeth grinding. It is often experienced as a result of the constant pressure and tension exerted on the muscles of the jaw and face, primarily the masseter and temporalis muscles, surrounding facial muscles and tissues.
This pain can manifest in various ways, including soreness, aching, or tenderness in the jaw, temples, or cheeks. The persistent clenching and grinding of teeth can lead to muscle fatigue and inflammation, resulting in discomfort and pain.
Facial pain from bruxism can affect sleep, eating, and overall quality of life, affecting sleep quality and worsening bruxism leading to a vicious chronic pain cycle.
Headaches and Migraines
The excessive force and repetitive motion involved in bruxism can lead to various symptoms, including headaches and migraines. When individuals grind their teeth, the muscles responsible for jaw movement become overworked and strained. This muscular tension can radiate to surrounding areas, such as the temples and forehead, resulting in tension type headaches. One of the clearest signs of sleep bruxism in an individual is chronic morning headaches that go away during the day.
Bruxism can also contribute to the development of migraines. The intense pressure and stress placed on the jaw joints during teeth grinding can trigger a cascade of events that lead to migraines. The strain on the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), the joint connecting the jaw to the skull, can cause inflammation and irritation.
This inflammation can then affect the trigeminal nerve, which is responsible for transmitting pain signals to the brain. Activation of the trigeminal nerve can trigger migraines, characterized by severe, throbbing headaches often accompanied by other symptoms such as nausea and sensitivity to light and sound.
Therefore, bruxism can indirectly cause headaches and migraines by placing strain on the jaw muscles and TMJ, leading to tension headaches and activating the trigeminal nerve, resulting in migraines.
Tooth Enamel Loss
The loss of tooth enamel is among the clearest signs of severe bruxism. Tooth enamel is the outer, hard, and protective layer of the teeth. So when sufferers clench and grind, the constant friction and pressure can wear down the enamel, leading to enamel loss and chipped and broken teeth.
The result, for many sufferers, is increased tooth sensitivity as the underlying dentin becomes exposed. Moreover, tooth enamel loss can make the teeth more susceptible to dental decay and cavities.
The wearing down of the tooth enamel from teeth grinding can also cause extra sensitive teeth. The damaged enamel can expose the dentin, which contains tiny tubules connected to the nerve endings of the teeth, resulting in sensitivity.
People with sensitive teeth may experience discomfort or pain when consuming hot or cold foods and beverages, as well as when brushing their teeth.
Sleep disorders are commonly associated with teeth grinding and can serve as both signs and causes of this condition. One common sleep disorder that is linked to teeth grinding is sleep apnea. Sleep apnea is a condition characterized by pauses in breathing during sleep, which can lead to episodes of teeth grinding.
Other signs of sleep disorders that may indicate teeth grinding include snoring, restless sleep, and daytime fatigue.
Recognizing all these indicators is crucial in identifying and addressing the issue of teeth grinding before it leads to permanent dental damage.
Long-Term Effects of Teeth Grinding on Your Oral Health
Teeth grinding, if left untreated, can have long-term effects on your oral health. From temporomandibular joint disorder to tooth loss and gum disease, the permanent and long-term consequences should be taken extremely seriously.
Temporomandibular Joint Disorder
Chronic teeth grinding can result in long-term damage to the temporomandibular joint, leading to a range of oral health issues. The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is the joint that connects the jawbone to the skull, allowing for smooth movement of the jaw. When teeth grinding, also known as bruxism, becomes a chronic habit, it puts excessive pressure on the TMJ. Over time, this can lead to the development of temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD), a condition that causes chronic pain, stiffness, and difficulty in jaw movement.
The long-term effects of TMD can be detrimental to one’s oral health. It can also lead to tooth wear, tooth fractures, and even tooth loss. The constant grinding and clenching can also cause muscle tension and inflammation in the surrounding tissues. This can result in facial pain, headaches, and difficulty in opening and closing the mouth.
Gum Recession and Disease
Chronic teeth grinding can lead to gum recession and increase the risk of gum disease. When you grind your teeth, excessive pressure is placed on the gums, causing them to recede over time. Gum recession exposes the tooth roots, making them more susceptible to decay and sensitivity.
Crucially, the exposed roots lack the protective enamel that covers the crowns of the teeth, leaving them vulnerable to damage and infection.
Gum recession also creates pockets between the gums and teeth, which can trap bacteria and food particles. This can lead to the development of gum disease, such as gingivitis and periodontitis. Gum disease can cause inflammation, bleeding, and, eventually, tooth loss if left untreated.
This constant grinding puts excessive pressure on the teeth, leading to the wearing down of tooth enamel, fractures, and even tooth loss. The repetitive motion of grinding can weaken the teeth, making them more susceptible to decay and breakage.
Tooth loss can then only be fixed by bridges, veneers, dentures or even dental implants.
Headaches, Migraines, and Earaches
Chronic headaches, migraines, and earaches can be long-term effects of teeth grinding on your oral health. The constant grinding puts strain on the muscles and joints in the jaw. When you grind your teeth, the excessive force can lead to tension headaches, which can be felt in the temples, forehead, or the back of the head.
Migraines, characterized by severe throbbing pain, can also be triggered by teeth grinding. The strain on the jaw muscles can also cause referred pain, leading to earaches.
Fixing Permanent Damage
Now that we have explored the long-term effects of teeth grinding on oral health, it is important to discuss the potential solutions for fixing the permanent damage caused by this condition.
Dental treatments and interventions can help restore damaged teeth and gums, alleviate pain, and improve overall oral health. These interventions may include dental bonding, crowns, dental implants, orthodontic treatment, and the use of night guards to prevent further damage.
Dental Treatments and Interventions
Proper dental treatments and interventions are necessary for both avoiding or addressing the permanent damage caused by chronic and untreated teeth grinding.
Dental professionals play a crucial role in diagnosing and treating these conditions, ensuring the restoration of oral health and functionality. A common treatment option for teeth grinding is the use of dental splints or mouthguards, which help to protect the teeth from excessive wear and damage.
In cases where tooth fractures or loss have already occurred, restorative treatments such as dental crowns, bridges, or dental implants may be recommended.
Addressing the underlying causes of teeth grinding, such as stress or misaligned teeth, may also involve orthodontic treatments or stress management techniques.
Seeking professional dental care is essential in preventing further damage and maintaining a healthy smile.
Non-Invasive Treatments and Medication for Bruxism
Non-invasive treatments and medication can be effective in managing bruxism. These solutions are much more economical options than waiting for your teeth to be too damaged to repair or just hoping bruxism goes away on its own.
Night Guards and Mouth Guards
Night guards and mouth guards are commonly prescribed by dental professionals as effective non-invasive treatments for bruxism.
These devices are designed to be worn during sleep and act as a protective barrier between the upper and lower teeth, preventing them from coming into contact and reducing the damage caused by grinding.
Night guards and mouth guards are custom-made to fit each individual’s mouth, ensuring maximum comfort and effectiveness. They are made from a durable yet flexible material that can withstand the forces generated by grinding and clenching.
By wearing these devices, individuals with bruxism can alleviate symptoms such as jaw pain, headaches, and tooth sensitivity, while also preventing further dental damage.
It is important for dental professionals to educate their patients about the benefits of night guards and mouth guards as part of a comprehensive treatment plan for bruxism.
While there are various non-invasive treatments and medications available for bruxism, one effective option to consider is the use of muscle relaxants.
Muscle relaxants can help alleviate the tension from the constant clenching and grinding of teeth, reducing the severity and frequency of teeth-grinding episodes.
These medications work by targeting the muscles involved in jaw movement, helping to relax them and prevent involuntary contractions. Muscle relaxants can be prescribed by a dentist or physician and are typically taken before bedtime to provide relief during sleep.
It is important to note that muscle relaxants should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they may have side effects and require careful monitoring.
Stress and Anxiety Relief
One effective method for managing bruxism and reducing the risk of permanent dental damage is through stress and anxiety relief techniques and medications. Stress and anxiety are major contributors to teeth grinding, and by addressing these underlying factors, individuals can alleviate the symptoms of bruxism and protect their dental health.
Non-invasive stress relief techniques such as meditation, deep breathing exercises, and yoga can help relax the mind and body, reducing tension and anxiety that often leads to teeth grinding. These techniques promote a sense of calm and overall well-being, which can be beneficial for individuals suffering from bruxism.
In addition to stress relief techniques, medications can also be prescribed to manage the symptoms of bruxism. Anti-anxiety medications may be prescribed to help relax and reduce the urge to grind the teeth.
Don’t Hesitate: Consult A Dentist at First Symptoms of Bruxism
Consulting a dentist at the first signs of bruxism is a great place to start for preventing permanent dental damage, along with regular dental check-ups and cleanings that help monitor oral health and detect any signs of damage. If you experience any symptoms of bruxism, it is essential to schedule an appointment with a dentist to receive a proper diagnosis and treatment.
By seeking dental care early on, individuals can receive prompt diagnosis and treatment to alleviate the symptoms and preserve their dental health.